Better RESTful API实践

Better RESTful API实践


1. 资源采用名词,采用复数形式

Resource GET read POST create PUT update PATCH Partially update DELETE
/cars Returns a list of cars Create a new car Bulk update of cars Bulk Partially update of cars Delete all cars
/cars/711 Returns a specific car Method not allowed (405) Updates a specific car [200/204, or 404] Partially Updates a specific car Deletes a specific car
200 or 404 201[ Location’ header or 404 200/204 or 404 200 or 404


  • Twitter:
  • Facebook:
  • LinkedIn:
  • GitHub API:

2. 采用子资源关联

GET /cars/711/drivers/ Returns a list of drivers for car 711
GET /cars/711/drivers/4 Returns driver #4 for car 711
GET /tickets/12/messages Retrieves list of messages for ticket #12
GET /tickets/12/messages/5 Retrieves message #5 for ticket #12
POST /tickets/12/messages Creates a new message in ticket #12
PUT /tickets/12/messages/5 Updates message #5 for ticket #12
PATCH /tickets/12/messages/5 Partially updates message #5 for ticket #12
DELETE /tickets/12/messages/5 Deletes message #5 for ticket #12


如果对于某些资源的 Action 不能够对应到 CRUD 操作,

  1. 比如对于资源的 activated,操作则可以映射成 PATCH 操作
  2. 比如对于GitHub上的gist点赞,则可以映射成资源的子属性
PUT /gists/:id/star
DELETE /gists/:id/star
  1. 如果对于多个资源的 search,不能够映射到各个资源上
GET /search


HATEOAS = ypermedia as the Engine of Application State

  "id": 711,
  "manufacturer": "bmw",
  "model": "X5",
  "seats": 5,
  "drivers": [
    # "id": "23", no need
    "name": "Stefan Jauker",
    "links": [
     "rel": "self",
     "href": "/api/v1/drivers/23"

4. 提供过滤、排序、字段选择和分页


GET /cars?color=red Returns a list of red cars
GET /cars?seats<=2 Returns a list of cars with a maximum of 2 seats

gt – Greater than
lt – Less than
eq – Equal to
ge – Greater than or equal to
le – Less than or equal to


GET /cars?sort=-manufactorer,+model


GET /cars?fields=manufacturer,model,id,color


GET /cars?offset=10&limit=5

# github存放在 http HEADer中,参见:
Link: <https://xxx/api/v1/cars?offset=15&limit=5>; rel="next",
<https://xxx/api/v1/cars?offset=50&limit=3>; rel="last",
<https://xxx/api/v1/cars?offset=0&limit=5>; rel="first",
<https://xxx/api/v1/cars?offset=5&limit=5>; rel="prev",

Google API开发中对于分页的处理方式如下

对于所有的List操作都应该支持分页,即使当前的结果集数量非常小,因为对于API添加分页功能的支持也是一个 behavior-breaking的修改。在List操作中增加如下定义字段:

  • page_token (string) 字段出现在 List 方法的请求消息中,表明客户端请求的具体页数的数据的结果,该字段的内容必须是url-safe的base64编码,如果包含敏感数据则应该进行加密,服务端必须保证被篡改page_token不能够访问到不是预期暴露的数据:
    • require query parameters to be respecifed on follow up requests
    • only reference server-side session state in the page token
    • encrypt and sign the query parameters in the page token and revalidate and reauthorize these parameters on every call
  • total_size (int32)
  • page_size (int32),如果 page_size == 0, 则由服务端决定返回的数目,当然服务端也可能有自己的限制条件,比如比 page_size 更小;
  • next_page_token (string) 字段出现在 List 方法的 Response Message中,代表下一页数据的 Token,如果该字段为空 “”, 则表明没有后续的数据;
rpc ListBooks(ListBooksRequest) returns (ListBooksResponse);

message ListBooksRequest {
  string name = 1;
  int32 page_size = 2;
  string page_token = 3;

message ListBooksResponse {
  repeated Book books = 1;
  string next_page_token = 2;

5. API 版本号

版本号放在url中,方便与日志收集后的过滤,同时版本号用整数, v1、v2, 不采用 v2.5的方式


6. 创建和更新操作返回资源主题信息

如果是采用Post Create参数应该返回创建后的资源信息,HTTP Status Code == 201, 并在 Header 中填写 “ Location = “Location” “:” absoluteURI” 表明创建资源后的URL地址;

如果是采用PUT操作资源,则应该返回更新后的资源字段,或者附件 created_at 或 updated_at等字段信息;

7. 采用HTTP Status Code处理错误

code Status Message
200 OK Eyerything is working
201 OK New resource has been created
204 OK The resource was successfully deleted
304 Not Modified The client can use cached data
400 Bad Request The request was invalid or cannot be served. The exact error should be explained in the error payload. E.g. „The JSON is not valid“
401 Unauthorized The request requires an user authentication
403 Forbidden The server understood the request, but is refusing it or the access is not allowed.
404 Not found There is no resource behind the URI.
409 CONFLICT Whenever a resource conflict would be caused by fulfilling the request. Duplicate entries, deleting root objects when cascade-delete not supported are a couple of examples.
422 Unprocessable Entity Should be used if the server cannot process the enitity, e.g. if an image cannot be formatted or mandatory fields are missing in the payload.
429 Too Many Requests Too many requests hit the API too quickly. We recommend an exponential backoff of your requests.
500 Internal Server Error API developers should avoid this error. If an error occurs in the global catch blog, the stracktrace should be logged and not returned as response.

使用Error Payload

  "errors": [
    "userMessage": "Sorry, the requested resource does not exist",
    "internalMessage": "No car found in the database",
    "code": 34,
    "more info": ""


  "code" : 1234,
  "message" : "Something bad happened :(",
  "description" : "More details about the error here"


  "code" : 1024,
  "message" : "Validation Failed",
  "errors" : [
      "code" : 5432,
      "field" : "first_name",
      "message" : "First name cannot have fancy characters"
       "code" : 5622,
       "field" : "password",
       "message" : "Password cannot be blank"



  "message":"token is invalid",

9. 输入和输出尽可能JSON格式

XML API vs JSON API,目前JSON API的调用已经大幅度领先于XML;尽可能返回JSON格式的数据,并保证返回的JSON格式数据具备良好的阅读性,例如默认设置参数(?pretty=true),方便与用户展示和调试;返回的JSON格式内容启用压缩功能;JSON格式推荐采用下划线分割page_size,而不是大小写格式pageSize;

10. API 访问限速

RFC 6585 中 429 Too Many Requests 定义了该种情况。

  • X-Rate-Limit-Limit – The number of allowed requests in the current period
  • X-Rate-Limit-Remaining – The number of remaining requests in the current period
  • X-Rate-Limit-Reset – The number of seconds left in the current period


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